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GENERAL INFO

TESTING

PROJECTS

CASE STUDIES


NATURALPAVE® XL RESIN PAVEMENT™
TESTING

Comparison to Asphalt

Slip Resistance Testing

Solar Reflectance (High Albedo Pavement)

Fuel Spill Resistance Testing

Thermal Conductivity

 

COMPARISON TO ASPHALT

NaturalPAVE materials are classified as flexible pavements, similar to Hot Mix Asphalt, and like asphalt they are installed by asphalt paving machines in continuous joint-free layers. This is in contrast to Portland Cement Concrete pavement, which is classified as rigid pavement and requires the use of expansion joints to control shrinkage cracking.

A series of tests was conducted by an asphalt pavement materials testing laboratory for the evaluation of a NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixture in comparison to conventional hot mix asphalt. The NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement material, which is non-toxic, cold-manufactured and cold-applied, and typically solar reflective as an installed product, outperformed conventional Hot Mix Asphalt pavement based on Resilient Modulus testing. In the interest of replicating the dynamic loading conditions that pavement layers experience under constant automobile and truck traffic, Resilient Modulus testing evaluates the elasticity of the pavement material and its ability to be resilient and return to its original shape and size without any permanent deformation, or damage, after repetitive loading cycles are applied.

Equivalent Values
Temperature NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement Hot Mix Asphalt

77°F (25°C) 1 inch 1.5-2 inches
120°F (49°C) 1 inch 2+ inches

The test results indicated that at 77°F (25°C) temperatures, a one inch thick layer of NaturalPAVE is equivalent to approximately two inches of Hot Mix Asphalt. Averaging the Resilient Modulus test values at the 120°F (49°C) temperature, a one inch thick layer of NaturalPAVE was equivalent to two or more inches of Hot Mix Asphalt pavement. Taking all the testing data into account, a layer of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement would be equivalent to a Hot Mix Asphalt pavement material of approximately twice the layer thickness. In hotter climates, the results of both Marshall Stability and Resilient Modulus testing indicate that more than twice the amount of Hot Mix Asphalt would be required in order to be equal to a thinner layer of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement.

For a more detailed explanation of these results view our report
"Layer Equivalency between NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement and Hot Mix Asphalt"

NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement, similar to hot mix asphalt, is a surface course pavement material that is reliant on the workmanship of the pavement contractor during placement operations and on the strength and stability of the base course and underlying layers upon which it is constructed. SSPCo is a supplier of pavement materials only and not a contractor, engineer, installer, or construction inspector.

The information contained on this page is intended for use by professional personnel who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of the information provided. It was reviewed carefully prior to publication. Final determination of the suitability of any information or material for the use contemplated, or for its manner of use, is the sole responsibility of the user.

 

SLIP RESISTANCE TESTING

PENDULUM TEST (E 303)

The test method is based on American Society for Testing and Materials Standard E 303. The pendulum device is a national standard for pedestrian slip resistance testing in at least 49 nations on four continents, which makes it by far the most-accepted method worldwide. Decades of extensive research into slip and fall accidents using the pendulum test method in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand has led to the present safety standards, which are endorsed by the CTIOA.

According to the results of the Pendulum Test (E 303) “The NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement surfaces have slip resistance in the same range as conventional broomed concrete and asphalt pavement, both of which are regarded as safe in regards to slip resistance.”

PTV Slip potential 0–24 High 25-35 Moderate 36 and higher Low

MCCOPPIN SQUARE SAN FRANCISCO

Product Measurand Test Result Slip Potential
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™ Four S hard rubber, dry 70 Low
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™ Four S hard rubber, wet 62 Low
Hot Mix Asphalt Four S hard rubber, wet 60 Low

BUENA VISTA PARK SAN FRANCISCO

Product Measurand Test Result Slip Potential
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™ Four S hard rubber, dry 63 Low
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™ Four S hard rubber, wet 52 Low
Broomed Concrete Four S hard rubber, dry 67 Low
Broomed Concrete Four S hard rubber, wet 60 Low

MCMAHAN HOUSE CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY SAN MARCOS

Product Measurand Test Result Slip Potential
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™ Four S hard rubber, dry 64 Low
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™ Four S hard rubber, wet 57 Low

 

STATIC COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION TEST (C 1028)

Product Measurand Test Result
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™
Buena Vista Park, San Francisco
Four S hard rubber, dry .85
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™
Buena Vista Park, San Francisco
Four S hard rubber, wet .83
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™
McCoppin Square, San Francisco
Four S hard rubber, dry .98
NaturalPAVE® Xl Resin Pavement™
McCoppin Square, San Francisco
Four S hard rubber, wet .88
Broomed Concrete
Buena Vista Park, San Francisco
Four S hard rubber, dry 1.01
Broomed Concrete
Buena Vista Park, San Francisco
Four S hard rubber, wet .99
Hot Mix Asphalt
McCoppin Square, San Francisco
Four S hard rubber, dry .88
Hot Mix Asphalt
McCoppin Square, San Francisco
Four S hard rubber, wet .87

 

SOLAR REFLECTANCE (HIGH ALBEDO PAVEMENT)

The most important aspect of a cool pavement is its ability to reflect rather than absorb solar energy. Among the traditional pavement materials, concrete sets the standard as being the most reflective (high albedo), while black asphalt is the least reflective (low albedo) and most absorbent of solar energy. Typically NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures are formulated with light colored aggregate mixtures and consequently have high solar reflectance similar to concrete pavements. The differences in pavement surface temperatures between heat absorbent asphalt and highly reflective NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement can be significant. For example, utilizing an infrared thermometer during mid-August afternoon conditions (98°F air temperatures) and measuring areas of pavement subject to full day sun exposure, the following pavement surface temperatures were recorded at the zoo facility in Washington, D.C.

As part of its educational mission regarding sustainable living practices for the Las Vegas Valley, the Springs Preserve in Las Vegas, Nevada, has an outdoor exhibit displaying the difference in residual heat between objects that reflect solar energy and objects that are non-reflective and absorb solar energy. Using the lizard thermometer sculptures pictured at right, visitors can observe the temperature differences throughout the day between the reflective white lizard and the heat absorbent black lizard. The 119.4°F and 153.5°F temperatures displayed were recorded mid-morning on a summer day while the air temperatures were still under 100°F. They closely parallel the actual temperatures of reflective NaturalPAVE XL® Resin Pavement and heat absorbent black asphalt pavement surfaces in these same weather conditions, showing that NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement is the ideal surfacing for overlaying existing asphalt as well as new pavement installations.

The NaturalPAVE® XL Resin Pavement™ specimens pictured below have solar reflectance measurements that help in meeting or exceeding the minimum Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) of 29 to qualify as high albedo pavement materials. Use of such pavement materials reduces heat absorption and radiance as required for a LEED™ Rating System Point toward “Green Building” Certification from the USGBC as per Credit SS 7.1 (Heat Island Effect) for light-colored/high albedo pavement.

 

FUEL SPILL RESISTANCE TESTING

NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement products are a sustainable flexible pavement alternative to Hot Mix Asphalt pavement that provides superior resistance to fuel spills as well as superior pavement materials performance as documented in Marshall Stability, Resilient Modulus and Dynamic Modulus testing conducted in independent pavement materials testing laboratories.

REDUCING FUEL SPILL DAMAGE

Fuel spills can create costly damage to asphalt pavements, breaking down the asphalt binder and shortening the service life of the pavement. The asphalt cement product used as the binder in the production of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) pavement mixtures is produced by refining crude oil, as are gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel products. The fuel and asphalt products are therefore chemically compatible and readily mix with each other. Fuel spills on asphalt pavements soften the asphalt binder and degrade the HMA pavement.

A variety of additive products are marketed to improve the fuel resistance of hot mix asphalt pavement mixtures. Not one of these additive product produces an asphalt pavement mixture that is fully resistant to damage. The current standard for a fuel resistant asphalt mixture formulated with one of these additive products requires that pavement specimens must survive immersion in kerosene or jet fuel for 24 hours with less than 5% loss of mass. The asphalt pavement materials manufactured with these so called fuel resistant pavement mix formulations are still subject to damage, but at a reduced rate.

ELIMINATING FUEL SPILL DAMAGE

NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures are formulated with petroleum-free binder materials that do not mix with fuel and consequently are not softened by fuel spills. To demonstrate the fuel resistance qualities of NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement mixtures, NaturalPAVE specimens were immersed in Jet A1, diesel and gasoline fuels as described at right, using the same immersion periods as standardized for testing asphalt based pavement specimens.

NATURALPAVE XL RESIN PAVEMENT FUEL IMMERSION TESTS - PROCEDURE

  1. Pavement specimens were prepared with the NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement binder.
  2. The specimens were photographed and the original masses of the specimens was recorded.
  3. The specimens were immersed in Jet A1 fuel for a period of 24 hours and then left to dry for 24 hours before the final mass of each specimen was recorded. The specimen immersed in diesel fuel for 24 hours was weighed and then once again immersed in diesel fuel for a period of 28 days.

In each case, the NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement specimens suffered no damage or loss of mass as the result of being fully immersed in the fuel products for the time periods noted above.

 

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

The thermal conductivity of a pavement material is also relevant to its effectiveness as a cool pavement. A pavement that has high thermal conductivity, such as asphalt, is going to rapidly take on the solar energy and transmit heat through the pavement into the base course materials and subgrade soils below the pavement. As indicated by testing at the ASU SMART Materials Testing Facility, both asphalt and concrete pavment materials conduct heat more rapidly than NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement. In combination with high solar reflectance, this advantage in thermal resistance makes NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement the standard for cool pavement technology.

NaturalPAVE XL Resin Pavement, similar to hot mix asphalt, is a surface course pavement material that is reliant on the workmanship of the pavement contractor during placement operations and on the strength and stability of the base course and underlying layers upon which it is constructed. SSPCo is a supplier of pavement materials only and not a contractor, engineer, installer, or construction inspector.

The information contained on this page is intended for use by professional personnel who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of the information provided. It was reviewed carefully prior to publication. Final determination of the suitability of any information or material for the use contemplated, or for its manner of use, is the sole responsibility of the user.

 

Soil Stabilization Products, Inc.
PO Box 2779
Merced, CA 95344

Toll Free: (800) 523-9992
Phone:     (209) 383-3296

Fax: (209) 383-7849

Email: INFO@SSPCO.COM

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